The first and only railway in Lichtenstein was opened in 1872 between Feldkirch, Austria and Buchs, Switzerland by the Vorarlberger Bahn company of Austria. This gave Western Austria a rail link to the rest of Europe, some 12 years before it was directly connected to the remainder of the Austrian network. The line was 18km in length, a little under half of which lay in the Principality of Liechtenstein. It was built to standard (1435mm) gauge.
The line later became absorbed into the Austrian national network and remains under that administration today. Its importance as a through international route meant that it was electrified in 1926.
There are three stations on the line in Liechtenstein (Schaan-Vaduz, Forst Hilti, Nendeln). Trains ceased calling at a fourth station, Schaanwald, in 2017. Local trains serving these stations operate only in the morning and evening peaks on Mondays to Fridays, public transport within the Principality otherwise being provided by bus.