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Darjeeling Himalayan Railway at Batasia
One of the famous “Toy Trains”, a train of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway pauses at Batasia.

The first railway in India opened in 1853 from Bombay (present day Mumbai) to Thane, a distance of 21 miles (33 km). It was built to a gauge of 5ft 6in (1675mm), which was adopted as standard for the majority of main line railways in the Indian subcontinent. However, in the mountainous areas, various narrow gauges are used, including 2ft (610mm), 2ft 6in (762mm) and 1000mm. Some of these narrow gauge lines themselves form extensive networks, and many are being converted to broad (1675mm) gauge.

The Indian railway network has two international connections with Pakistan. There are several international connections with Bangladesh, of which two are used by passenger trains. There are two cross-border links into Nepal, each following the route of an earlier 2ft 6in (762mm) gauge line. A line is under construction from Jiribam in the northeast of the country to Moreh on the border with Myanmar, where it is planned eventually to connect with Myanma Railways.

In 2006, Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited (DFCCIL) was set up as a government company to coordinate the design, build, operation and maintenance of new dedicated freight railways in the country. Current projects amount to over 3300km of new line.

In 2016, National High Speed Rail Corporation Limited (NHSRCL) was set up as a joint national and state government company to coordinate the design, build, operation and maintenance of new dedicated high speed passenger railways in the country. The first project is a high speed line linking Mumbai with Ahmedabad, a distance of 508km; the planned opening date is 2023.

The National Network

Independent Railways

The “Toy Trains”

Several spectacularly picturesque narrow gauge lines, originally built to serve British hill forts, later becoming important local transport links, then tourist attractions. Three of them now have UNESCO World Heritage status. Administratively and operationally part of the Indian Railways network, some also have their own websites, listed here:

Metros and Trams

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