The first railway in present day Belarus reached Brest-Litovsk (present day Brest) from Warsaw in 1866, the first section of through route to Moscow completed in 1871. The Belarus network developed under the Russian Empire was naturally built to the Russian standard gauge of 1520mm.
From 1921 until the outbreak of the World War II the western part of the territory formed part of Poland. However, there were no significant railway developments in that part of the country during this time. After the war, the country took its present boundaries, to form the Bielorussian SSR of the Soviet Union.
Belarusian Railway came into being as an administration in its own right on the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s.