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The first public railway in the states that would later unite to form Italy was between Naples and Portici in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was built to standard gauge (1435mm) and opened on 3rd October, 1839.

The Kingdom of Italy came into being in 1860, and was progressively enlarged to become the country we know today. Each of the constituent states contributed their own railway systems, the greater part of which ultimately came to form the State railway company, Ferrovia dello Stato (FS).

Separate infrastructure and operating companies have now been formed, but both remain subsidiaries of FS. Trenitalia, the operating arm of the State company FS, remains the major main line operator for both passenger and freight. For passenger services, a number of long-standing private operators continue to exist, and new operators are appearing. Various independent freight operators have also entered the market.

Mainland Italy

National Network

Regional Operators

Tourist and Local Railways

Industrial Railways

Urban railways, metros, trams and funiculars




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Flag image from CIA World Factbook